9/11 Eyewitness Hoboken Highlights
North Tower Exploding
Debris Ejected at a 45 Degree Angle
300 Ton Chunk of Debris Lands on Winter Garden
FEMA Debris Pattern Map
New 9/11 Photo Shows North Tower Exploding Upward and Outward
Pyroclastic Flow Engulfs Lower Manhattan After North Tower “Collapse”
Bankers Trust Building
Charred Remains Found at the WTC
China Syndrome at the WTC
A neutron bomb is a fission-fusion thermonuclear weapon (hydrogen bomb) in which the burst of neutrons generated by a fusion reaction is intentionally allowed to escape the weapon, rather than being absorbed by its other components. The weapon’s X-ray mirrors and radiation case, made of uranium or lead in a standard bomb, are instead made of chromium or nickel so that the neutrons can escape. The bombs also require amounts of tritium on the order of a few tens of grams.
The “usual” nuclear weapon yield—expressed as kT TNT equivalent—is not a measure of a neutron weapon’s destructive power. It refers only to the energy released (mostly heat and blast), and does not express the lethal effect of neutron radiation on living organisms. Compared to a fission bomb with the identical explosive yield, a neutron bomb would emit about ten times the amount of neutron radiation. In a fission bomb, the radiation pulse energy is approximately 5% of the entire energy released; in the neutron bomb it would be closer to 50%. A neutron bomb releases a much greater number of neutrons than a fission bomb of the same explosive yield. Furthermore, these neutrons are of much higher energy (14 MeV) than those released during a fission reaction (1–2 MeV).
The tactical neutron bomb is a nuclear weapon that maximizes damage to people but minimizes damage to buildings and equipment. It is also called an enhanced radiation warhead. The neutron bomb is a specialized thermonuclear weapon that produces a minimal blast but releases large amounts of lethal radiation which can penetrate armor or several feet of earth.
Sam Cohen is considered the father of the neutron bomb. In the summer of 1958 he began investigating the possibility of large thermonuclear weapons. In his research, Cohen argued that if the uranium casing of a hydrogen bomb were removed, the neutrons released would travel great distances, penetrating even well-shielded structures with lethal doses of radiation and harming anyone inside.
The idea of the neutron warhead has been hotly debated since its inception. At the time of its introduction, some felt that its relatively small initial blast and fallout was ideal for use in densely populated areas, like Europe. Other proponents argued that deployment of the neutron warhead could be used as a bargaining chip against the Soviet SS-20 missile which was viewed as a threat to NATO forces in Europe. Opponents of the weapon argued that the neutron bomb made the idea of using nuclear weapons in war more conceivable. Because the neutron bomb would devastate the whole of a target, military planners might not be as hesitant to use the neutron bomb as they would a standard fission bomb.
Neutron Bomb Timeline
Summer 1958- While conducting researching on developing a large thermonuclear weapon, Sam Cohen introduces the idea of removing the uranium casing from a hydrogen bomb to allow neutrons to travel great distances and penetrate even heavily shielded armor and structures.
1961-The Kennedy administration decides against the idea of developing a neutron bomb and introducing it into the US nuclear arsenal because it may jeopardize the moratorium on nuclear testing being observed by the US and Soviet Union.
1961-The Soviet Union breaks the moratorium on nuclear testing allowing the US to proceed with developing the neutron bomb.
1962-The first neutron device is successfully tested.
1970s-The Carter administration proposes modernizing the US nuclear arsenal by installing neutron warheads on the Lance missiles and artillery shells planned for deployment in Europe.
1977-West Germans realize their country will likely be the battleground for use of the neutron bomb and begin hotly debating whether or not the weapon should be allowed on their soil.
1978-Succumbing to international and domestic pressure, President Carter decides to defer deployment of the neutron bomb, conditional to Soviet restraint in military production and force deployments.
1980-France announces that it has tested a neutron device.
1981-President Reagan re-authorizes the production of neutron warheads for the Lance missile and an 8-inch artillery shell, but because of strong opposition in Europe, he orders that all neutron weapons be stored in the US with the option to deploy overseas in the event of war. The USSR announces that it too has tested neutron weapons, but has no plans of deploying them.
1982-France begins production of the neutron warhead.
1986-France announces it will abandon the production of neutron warheads because of internal and external political pressure.
Definition of the Neutron Bomb
“Also called ENHANCED RADIATION WARHEAD, specialized type of small thermonuclear weapon that produces minimal blast and heat but which releases large amounts of lethal radiation. The neutron bomb delivers blast and heat effects that are confined to an area of only a few hundred yards in radius. But within a somewhat larger area it throws off a massive wave of neutron and gamma radiation, which can penetrate armor or several feet of earth. This radiation is extremely destructive to living tissue. Because of its short-range destructiveness and the absence of long-range effect, the neutron bomb would be highly effective against tank and infantry formations on the battlefield but would not endanger cities or other population centers only a few miles away. It can be carried in a Lance missile or delivered by an 8-inch (200-millimetre) howitzer, or possibly by attack aircraft. In strategic terms, the neutron bomb has a theoretical deterrent effect: discouraging an armored ground assault by arousing the fear of neutron bomb counterattack. The bomb would disable enemy tank crews in minutes, and those exposed would die within days. U.S. production of the bomb was postponed in 1978 and resumed in 1981.”
The other stable hydrogen isotope, is known as deuterium and contains one proton and one neutron in its nucleus. Deuterium comprises 0.0026 – 0.0184% (by population, not by mass) of hydrogen samples on Earth, with the lower number tending to be found in samples of hydrogen gas and the higher enrichments (0.015% or 150 ppm) typical of ocean water. Deuterium is not radioactive, and does not represent a significant toxicity hazard. Water enriched in molecules that include deuterium instead of normal hydrogen is called heavy water. Deuterium and its compounds are used as a non-radioactive label in chemical experiments and in solvents for 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Heavy water is used as a neutron moderator and coolant for nuclear reactors. Deuterium is also a potential fuel for commercial nuclear fusion
3H is known as tritium and contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus. It is radioactive, decaying into helium-3 through β− decay with a half-life of 12.32 years. Small amounts of tritium occur naturally because of the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric gases. Tritium has also been released during nuclear weapons tests. It is used in thermonuclear fusion weapons, as a tracer in isotope geochemistry, and specialized in self-powered lighting devices. The most common method of producing tritium is by bombarding a natural isotope of lithium, lithium-6, with neutrons in a nuclear reactor.
Tritium was once used routinely in chemical and biological labeling experiments as a radiolabel, which has become less common in recent times. D-T nuclear fusion uses tritium as its main reactant, along with deuterium, liberating energy through the loss of mass when the two nuclei collide and fuse at high temperatures.
Through The Neutron Looking Glass (Sam Cohen)
In a broad sense, the neutron bomb is an explosive version of the sun; that is, the relevant energy it emits comes from thermonuclear, or fusion, reactions involving the very lightest elements. To be specific, its fuel consists of the two heavier nuclei of hydrogen, named deuterium and tritium. By means of a fission trigger, a mixture of these two nuclei is compressed and heated, as happens in a hydrogen bomb, to cause nuclear reactions whose principle output is in the form of very high energy neutrons. Also produced will be blast and heat, but so predominant are the neutron effects against human beings, who are a hundred to a thousand times more vulnerable to radiation than blast and heat, that by bursting the weapon high enough off the ground the only significant effects at the surface will come from radiation. In so doing, the blast and heat effects will not be strong enough to cause significant damage to most structures. Hence, a bomb which, accurately but misleadingly, has been described as a weapon that kills people but spares buildings. (Those who like and comprehend the Bomb understand that the people are bad guys — enemy soldiers. Those who dislike it and never have bothered to delve into its military aspects, claim the people are innocent civilians who happen to be in the combat area, even though most of the time they’re not, for obvious reasons.) In the real world, it is a weapon that fulfills the dream of civilized nations; namely, a weapon that restricts the battle to the battlefield.
What does it do? Well, in about a thousandth of a second it will seriously irradiate enemy soldiers (in tanks, self-propelled artillery vehicles, armored personnel carriers, in field bunkers, and most other places where they may be)out to a distance of about half to three-quarters of a mile for a warhead yield of a kiloton, a tenth that of the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima. Soldiers in this area, to one degree or another, within minutes to hours, will be rendered unfit to fight. Roughly half will die, most rather quickly from shock to the central nervous system. Those who are “wounded” (I put this in quotes because neutron bomb wounds in no way can be compared with wounds from conventional weapons — rifles, machine guns, artillery, fragmentation weapons, napalm, etc.), if given proper medical attention, as is done on the conventional battlefield, after some weeks they will recover.
What doesn’t it do? Well, for start-offs, when the war is over the civilian areas — villages, towns, cities — will be in just about the shape they were in before it started. There will be no lingering radioactivity to prevent occupation of these areas; in fact, they can be reentered almost immediately. (Compare this with every major war we’ve fought in this century, with what I saw in Seoul that affected me so deeply.) As for the enemy soldiers, the bad guys, who during a war we make out to be as barbaric as the troops of Attila the Hun (they usually are), those that die are dead; but that’s always been the main objective in battlefield conflict — to kill. As to how they die, which hasn’t been of real concern in conventional war, all I can say is I doubt whether the agony an irradiated soldier goes through in the process of dying is any worse than that produced by having your body charred to a crisp by napalm, your guts being ripped apart by shrapnel, your lungs blown in by concussion weapons, and all those other sweet things that happen when conventional weapons (which are preferred and anointed by our official policy) are used. But that’s my subjective opinion, based in no small way on my agony at the hands of my bowel-conscious mother, so loved by all her friends, in contrast with her son so reviled by so much of the world. As for the wounded, to a first approximation, when they have recovered, they are back in just about the same shape they were in before the irradiation. They have all their limbs, their eyesight, an intact digestive system which, with or without Metamucil, will allow them to move their bowels to their hearts content, or their mother’s heart content if their mothers are like mine (may God help them), and so on. In a very small percentage of the cases, many years later cancer (mainly leukemia) may arise; but unless most of them don’t smoke or frequent restaurants where smoking is allowed, most of them stand a better chance of dying from smoke (or other chemical) induced cancer, or cancer produced by natural causes.